Iterators in Rust

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Whether you’re new to programming or have many years of experience in solving problems and implementing algorithms, chances are high you’ve heard about and used iterators at some point. Iterators are objects that produce sequences of values, so they can be iterated or looped over. Or, in other words, every time you ended up using a for loop in your program, you were most likely interacting with some kind of iterator.

Obviously, Rust comes with support for loops and iterators as well, and, just like in many other languages, iterators can be implemented from scratch. In this article we’re going to take a closer look at the Iterator and IntoIterator traits to create iterators and turning existing types into iterators as well.

Understanding the Iterator trait

Alright, let’s start off by inspecting the following code snippet:

let names = vec!["Pascal", "Elvira", "Dominic", "Christoph"];

for name in names {
    println!("{}", name);

We’ve got a Vec<&str> of names and print out each and every one of them by iterating over it with a for loop. Nothing too fancy going on here. Oh by the way, if you’re wondering what &str means, check out this article about String vs &str in Rust.

The next snippet is very similar:

let mut book_reviews = HashMap::new();

    "Search Inside Yourself".to_string(),
    "A great book about meditation.".to_string(),

    "Unleash the potential of your brain!".to_string(),

for review in book_reviews {
    println!("{}: {}", review.0, review.1);

This time however, we’re dealing with a HashMap<String, String>. Still, we’re able to simply iterate over book_reviews, how come that’s possible? You’ve probably already guessed that there’s some mechanism in place that ensures Rust treats these types as something we can iterate over. There are some things going on here, but the first important bit is that for loops consume any type that implement the Iterator trait.

Here’s what it looks like:

trait Iterator {
    type Item;
    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Self::Item>;

The Iterator trait comes with a next() method that returns Option<Self::Item>. The exact type of Self::Item depends on the values the iterator produces. What’s more interesting however, is that it’s wrapped in an Option. next() returns the next value of the iterator and because it could potentially run out of values, returning an Option enables the API to return None in such cases. This also means that iterators are stateful because they keep track of where they are in the iteration process. There are some more methods attached to the trait but we can ignore those for now.

Okay cool, we use Vec<T> and HashMap<K, V> (and other collection types) in for loops so they most likely implement the Iterator trait. However if we try to call next() on them like this:

let names = vec!["Pascal", "Elvira", "Dominic", "Christoph"];;

We’ll get a compiler error telling us that there’s no such API:

error[E0599]: no method named `next` found for struct `std::vec::Vec<&str>` in the current scope
 --> src/
9 |;
  |           ^^^^ method not found in `std::vec::Vec<&str>`

What’s going on here? Well, it turns out that there’s another trait in place that ensures our loop indeed receives an Iterator. That trait is the IntoIterator trait.

Iterables with IntoIterator

When there’s a “natural way” to iterate over some type, it can implement the IntoIterator trait. IntoIterator comes with an into_iter() method that returns an iterator over its value. Here’s what it looks like:

trait IntoIterator where Self::IntoIter::Item == Self::Item {
    type Item;
    type IntoIter: Iterator;
    fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter;

Any type that implements IntoIterator is also called an Iterable. So how does this trait play a role in the original scenario we’ve discussed? If we have a for loop that looks like this:

let names = vec!["Pascal", "Elvira", "Dominic", "Christoph"];

for name in names {
    println!("{}", name);

It actually desugars to something like this:

let mut iterator = (names).into_iter();
while let Some(name) = {
    println!("{}", name);

Aha! Our for loop actually takes care of turning an Iterable into an Iterator by calling into_iter() on it! This also works when iterators are passed directly to for loops, because any type that implements Iterator also implements IntoIterator, which then just simply returns the iterator itself:

let names = vec!["Pascal", "Elvira", "Dominic", "Christoph"];

let iterator = (names).into_iter();

for name in iterator {
    println!("{}", name); 

Obviously, in this particular case there’s no additional value in doing that. However, when we deal with types like Range and other iterator types, everything works just as expected. If you’re curious about what other built-in iterator types are there, keep on reading!

Creating iterator using iter() and iter_mut()

There are actually different ways in Rust to create iterators from types. While the IntoIterator and its into_iter() method are mostly called implicitly when we use for loops, iter() and iter_mut() methods are often provided by collection types to create iterators explicitly. There’s no trait that provides iter() and iter_mut(), so it’s more of a convention that collection types may implement these methods.

The example from above can then be written as follows:

let names = vec!["Pascal", "Elvira", "Dominic", "Christoph"];

let mut iterator = (names).iter(); // or iter_mut() respectively


So what’s the point of having iter() und iter_mut() when there’s into_iter(), which seems to do the same thing? As always, the devil is in the details as this StackOverFlow answer illustrates very nicely.

As mentioned before, IntoIterator implementations mostly come into play in combination with for loops. One thing to keep in mind here, is that we probably want the flexibility to consume our iterable values to be by value or (mutable) reference depending on our context.

If this doesn’t make a lot of sense to you, you might want to read this article on References in Rust and come back once you’re done.

In other words, we want to be able to any of the following:

for element in &collection { ... }
for element in &mut collection { ... }
for element in collection { ... }

The IntoIterator trait allows for that. For example, if we look at the implementation of Vec<T> it implements the trait three times:

impl<T> IntoIterator for Vec<T>
impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a Vec<T>
impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a mut Vec<T>

Depending on how we use into_iter() on a Vec<T> we’ll get different types of values produced, namely values of T, &T or &mut T respectively (as illustrated in the three for loops above). Keep in mind though, that this only works because Vec<T> happens to implement IntoIterator for these three scenarios. There are other types, that only come with one or two implementations of IntoIterator, which might lead to surprising results when relying on into_iter() directly.

This is different when we use iter() or iter_mut(). These two methods always return immutable references (&T) or mutable references (&mut T) but never values, making these APIs very predictable.

In short:

  • Given a shared reference to a collection, into_iter() returns an iterator that produces shared references to its items.
  • Given a mutable reference to a collection, it returns an iterator that produces mutable references to the items.
  • Given a collection as value, it returns an iterator that takes ownership of the collection and returns items by value. For a quick primer on ownership, check out this article.
  • iter() always returns an iterator that produces shared references to its items.
  • iter_mut() always returns an iterator that produces mutable references to its items.

What else is there?

So far we’ve discussed what iterators are and how we create them, but obviously, there’s more to them. The real power of iterators emerges when we leverage the power of Iterator adapters, which are functional APIs that enable us to build new iterators with specific characteristics. We’ll take a closer look at the most important ones in another article, so stay tuned and sign up to the Rust For JavaScript Developers newsletter!

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Written by  Author

Pascal Precht